Je vous propose une nouvelle version d’un article que j’avais posté dans feu Archives Radio Monde et dont les clips de présentation des logos à travers le temps avaient été mis à jour.
The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American commercial broadcasting television network. Created in 1943 from the former NBC Blue radio network, ABC is owned by The Walt Disney Company and is part of Disney-ABC Television Group, formerly ABC-TV. Its first broadcast on television was in 1948.
CBS Broadcasting Inc. (CBS) is a major US commercial broadcasting television network, which started as a radio network. The name is derived from the initials of the network’s former name, Columbia Broadcasting System.
La National Broadcasting Company (NBC) est un groupe audiovisuelaméricain, qui s’est bâti autour du réseau hertzienNBC Television. Le groupe comprend en outre les chaînes câblées CNBC, MSNBC et Bravo, les chaînes hertziennes de langue espagnole Telemundo, ainsi que diverses autres chaînes.
Le tout premier logotype de la chaîne de télévision fut un métallophone à trois lames sur lesquelles furent inscrites les lettres NBC. Lors de l’arrivée de la couleur, on vit apparaître une première version du paon et un nouveau logo, appelé Snake qui était, en fait, les lettres NBC reliées entre elles.
Le logotype de NBC est une représentation stylisée d’un paon, voulant indiquer par là la richesse des couleurs de NBC dès l’apparition de la technologie de télévision couleur.
Dans les années 1990, la NBC a entamé une stratégie de diversification, notamment avec la création de deux sous-réseaux de télévision par câble, CNBC et MSNBC. La NBC a également la propriété partielle de plusieurs canaux régionaux de sports et d’autres canaux de câble, tels que Court TV et American Movie Classics. La NBC Super Channel atteint plus de 65 millions de ménages en Europe. En 1994 la NBC a commencé à mettre en place la vidéo de bureau de NBC, un service d’informations financières qui fournit la vidéo de phase aux ordinateurs individuels. En 1995 la compagnie a annoncé un accord avec Microsoft visant à créer MSNBC, un canal de télévision par câble.
NBC a longtemps été la chaine de télévision n°1 aux États-Unis grâce à des programmes tels que Friends, Seinfeld , Urgences, Will et Grace ou le très fameuxSaturday Night Live. Cependant depuis quelques années NBC a connu une forte érosion dans l’audience de ses programmes phares et se positionnait en 2005 en 3eposition derrière CBS et ABC, respectivement 1re et 2e.
Depuis le rachat en mai 2004 de Vivendi Universal Entertainment par General Electric, NBC fait partie du conglomérat de médias NBC Universal. En janvier 2011,Comcast devient l’actionnaire majoritaire devant General Electric.
NBC est formé de 10 stations qu’elle possède ainsi que 200 affiliés aux États-Unis et ses territoires. Quelques stations du réseau sont distribuées au Canada, et la plupart de ses émissions réseau sont acquises et redistribuées par des réseaux canadiens en simultané.
PBS was founded by Hartford N. Gunn Jr. of WGBH-TV in Boston, Massachusetts, as the Corporation for Public Broadcasting on October 5, 1970, at which time it took over many of the functions of its predecessor,National Educational Television (NET), which later merged with Newark, New Jersey station WNDT to form WNET. In 1973, it merged with Educational Television Stations.
Unlike the model of America’s commercial broadcasttelevision networks, in which affiliates give up portions of their local advertising airtime in exchange for network programming, PBS member stations pay fees for the shows acquired and distributed by the national organization. This relationship means that PBS member stations have greater latitude in local scheduling than their commercial broadcasting counterparts. Scheduling of PBS-distributed series may vary greatly depending on the market. This can be a source of tension as stations seek to preserve their localism, and PBS strives to market a consistent national lineup. However, PBS has a policy of « common carriage » requiring most stations to clear the national prime-time programs on a common programming schedule, in order to allow them to be more effectively marketed on a national basis. KCET‘s management cited unresolvable financial and programming disputes among its major reasons for leaving PBS.
Unlike its radio counterpart, National Public Radio, PBS has no central program production arm or news department. All of the programming carried by PBS, whether news, documentary, or entertainment, is created by (or in most cases produced under contract with) other parties, such as individual member stations. WGBH in Boston is one of the largest producers of educational television programming, including American Experience, Masterpiece Theatre, Nova, Antiques Roadshow and Frontline, as well as many other children’s and lifestyle shows. News programs are produced by WETA-TV (PBS Newshour) in Washington, D.C.,WNET in New York and WPBT in Miami. The Charlie Rose interview show, Secrets of the Dead, Nature, and Cyberchase come from or through WNET in New York. Once a program is offered to, and accepted by, PBS for distribution, PBS (and not the member station that supplied the program) retains exclusive rights for rebroadcasts during the period for which such rights were granted; the suppliers do maintain the right to sell the program in non-broadcast media such as DVDs, books, and sometimes PBS licensed merchandise (but sometimes grant such ancillary rights as well to PBS).
PBS stations are commonly operated by non-profit organizations, state agencies, local authorities (such as municipal boards of education), or universities in their city of license. In some U.S. states, a group of PBS stations throughout the entire state may be organized into a single regional « subnetwork » called a state network (such as Alabama Public Television and the Arkansas Educational Television Network); some states may be served by such a regional network and simultaneously have PBS member stations in a certain city of license that operates autonomously from the regional member network. As opposed to the present commercial broadcasting model in which network programs are often carried exclusively on one television station in a given market, PBS may maintain more than one member station in certain markets (for example, KOCE-TV,KLCS and KVCR-DT serve as PBS stations for the Los Angeles market), which may be owned by the licensee of the market’s primary PBS member station or owned separately from that station. Unlike public broadcasters in most other countries, PBS does not own any of the stations that broadcast its programming (in context, there are no PBS owned-and-operated stations anywhere in the country). This is partly due to the origins of the PBS stations themselves, and partly due to historical broadcast license issues.
In the modern broadcast marketplace, this organizational structure is considered outmoded by some media critics. A common restructuring proposal is to reorganize the network so that each state would have one PBS member which would broadcast statewide. However, this proposal is controversial, as it would reduce local community input into PBS programming, especially considering how PBS stations are significantly more community-oriented, according to the argument, than their commercial broadcaster counterparts.
In 1994, The Chronicle of Philanthropy, an industry publication, released the results of the largest study on the popularity and credibility of charitable and non-profit organizations. The study showed that PBS was ranked as the 11th « most popular charity/non-profit in America » from over 100 charities researched, with 38.2% of Americans over the age of 12 choosing « love » and « like a lot » for PBS.
In December 2009, PBS signed up for the Nielsen ratingsaudience measurement reports for the first time. On May 8, 2013, PBS as well as PBS Kids programs were made available through the Roku streaming player.
Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PBS
WNBC, identification de la station en 1964.